Discussion:
OT - for our NZ poster - Captain Cook set sail 250 years ago
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a425couple
2018-09-03 02:29:23 UTC
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https://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-advice/travellers-stories/captain-cook-set-sail-for-australia-250-years-ago-who-was-he-and-was-he-eaten-by-cannibals/news-story/00b3e0ecec2be9b9257ddd043e03c448

(Quite good pictures and graphics at the above site.
I enjoy reading of explorers, and Capt. Cook is top rate.
He sailed from England, and his first stop was in Tahiti
for a scientific purpose of measuring the Venus transit
of the sun. Then the serious work of finding the big
Southern continent was his assignment. Until his sailing,
it was thought that New Zealand's west coast, was the west
side of a very large continent. WRONG! He found they were
two different islands.)

Captain Cook set sail for Australia 250 years ago.
Who was he and was he eaten by cannibals?
RUMOURS swirl over what happened to Captain James Cook’s body on his
voyage to the southern hemisphere 250 years ago.

Candace Sutton
news.com.auSEPTEMBER 2, 20185:32PM
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IT WAS 250 years ago, August 26, 1768 that Captain James Cook set sail
on the HM Bark Endeavour from Plymouth to discover the fabled Great
Southern continent.

Cook’s voyage was meant to be a trip to Tahiti in the southern ocean to
observe the transit of the planet Venus across the face of the Sun.

It was a rare event, happening every 243 years, that Venus could be
observed as a black disc passing across the Sun.

It was an 18th century obsession, with the outlying planets Uranus,
Neptune and Pluto as yet undiscovered, just how far was the Earth from
the Sun?

England’s Royal Academy had sponsored the Endeavour to chart the transit
in the belief it would then be able to measure the size of the solar system.

But Cook also had a second mission commissioned by King George III,
contained in sealed orders he read only when his ship had sailed.

His voyage would change the course of history for the inhabitants of the
great land, dubbed in the English press at the time Terra Incognita in
the south.

What Cook did has been likened to space travel, although blasting off
for Mars even back then would at least have been heading for a seen object.

Cook and his ship of 94 occupants — including gentleman botanist Joseph
Banks — were sailing towards a remote island in the Pacific in the hope
of finding something Europe wasn’t sure even existed.

Captain James Cook rose from humble beginning to become a famous
cartographer and explorer. Painting: Sir Nathaniel
Dance-Holland/National Maritime Museum, Greenwich
Captain James Cook rose from humble beginning to become a famous
cartographer and explorer. Painting: Sir Nathaniel
Dance-Holland/National Maritime Museum, GreenwichSource:Supplied

The replica Endeavour sailing west of Port Lincoln, SA in 1994.
The replica Endeavour sailing west of Port Lincoln, SA in
1994.Source:News Corp Australia

The mythical Great Southern continent drawn on a 1570 map by Abraham
Orte believed since antiquity to be at the bottom of the world.
The mythical Great Southern continent drawn on a 1570 map by Abraham
Orte believed since antiquity to be at the bottom of the
world.Source:Supplied

Whitby, North Yorkshire, where James Cook was apprenticed as a seaman.
Whitby, North Yorkshire, where James Cook was apprenticed as a
seaman.Source:Supplied

Tahiti had been charted by the British only a year earlier.

Cook’s secret orders from the British Admiralty were to find the
southern continent about which Northern Hemisphere cartographers had
long hypothesised.

As early as the fifth century, although many thousands of years since
the first Aboriginal people settled Australia, the great continent
Australis, which means south, had begun appearing on maps.

The existence of a land mass to balance Europe, Africa and, later, the
Americas had been speculated upon as far back as around 350BC by Greek
philosopher Aristotle.

The Dutch East India Company had charted part of the coast of a land
they would call New Holland by the early 1600s, with Abel Tasman giving
the name Van Diemen’s Land to the island which now bears his name.

By the 1760s, Britain was embroiled in the American War of Independence
and its custom of transporting criminals to those colonies had been
suspended.

Economical and strategic advantages and a different sea trade route lay
in having a new colony in the south.

James Cook had demonstrated his considerable skills in cartography,
mapping the St Lawrence River (near French-held Quebec) for the British
Navy, and thereafter Newfoundland.

Cook’s map of the island was so accurate it was still in use last century.

The first printed portrait of James Cook in 1759.
The first printed portrait of James Cook in 1759.Source:Supplied

Cook's secret instructions to find ‘Terra Incognita’.
Cook's secret instructions to find ‘Terra Incognita’.Source:Supplied

A teenage James Cook first went to Staithes (above) to work as a shop hand.
A teenage James Cook first went to Staithes (above) to work as a shop
hand.Source:Supplied

A 1756 map by French cartographer Robert de Vaugondy, drawn 12 years
before Cook departed from England.
A 1756 map by French cartographer Robert de Vaugondy, drawn 12 years
before Cook departed from England.Source:Supplied

So who was James Cook and how did he come to be the one setting sail for
the island continent where around 750,000 indigenous people lived?

Born in the village of Marton in Yorkshire in 1728, Cook was one of four
surviving children of a Scottish farm labourer father, In 1736, his
father became foreman on the farm of lord of the manor Thomas Skottowe
in Great Ayton, Yorkshire. This allowed James to get a formal education,
and when he showed aptitude for maths and schoolwork, he was apprenticed
to a shopkeeper in the coastal fishing port of Staithes.

Lured by the seafaring life, he moved to the harbour town of Whitby to
serve a marine apprenticeship with John and Henry Walker.

The Quaker shipowners encouraged his study of maths and navigation, and
in 1747, aged 19, he took his first voyage aboard a collier (coal ship).

Cook was unusually tall, more than 183cm, and older than the other
apprentices.

The colliers he served on plying the North Sea made a lasting impression
on him.

The vessels, known locally as Whitby cats, had a broad, flat bow, a
square stern, and a long boxlike body with a deep hold.

Their flat bottoms allowed the ships to sail in shallow waters and be
beached for cargo loading.

Cook’s skill as a mariner earned him promotion up the ranks, but in 1755
he joined the Royal Navy as an ordinary seaman, technically a demotion.

Portrait of Cook painted after his death showing glove on his right hand
concealing powder burn scars sustained in America in the 1760s. Picture:
Australian National Gallery
Portrait of Cook painted after his death showing glove on his right hand
concealing powder burn scars sustained in America in the 1760s. Picture:
Australian National GallerySource:Supplied

Inside the replica Endeavour where Cook would have sat, is Australian
National Maritime Museum marine archaeologist James Hunter. Picture:
James Croucher
Inside the replica Endeavour where Cook would have sat, is Australian
National Maritime Museum marine archaeologist James Hunter. Picture:
James CroucherSource:News Corp Australia

London Gazette of August 19, 1768, talks of the secrecy surrounding
Cook’s voyage and if he will look for an unknown continent south of the
Equator.
London Gazette of August 19, 1768, talks of the secrecy surrounding
Cook’s voyage and if he will look for an unknown continent south of the
Equator.Source:News Limited

Thereafter he learnt cartography, partly teaching himself.

Between 1759 and 1767, he surveyed the St Lawrence River, Newfoundland
and St Pierre and Miquelon islands off Canada’s east coast.

Chosen to make the great voyage of discovery south, Cook chose a ship
that could take him, a complement of crew and passengers and a large
amount of supplies to the other side of the world.

It was a Whitby cat, formerly known as the Earl of Pembroke.

Now renamed the Endeavour, it was a large vessel, 29.7m long, built from
white oak, elm and pine.

It had the flat-bottomed design so as to be loaded at low tide and
floated off, which would eventually allow it to be repaired after it ran
aground on the Great Barrier Reef in 1770.

On August 22, 1768, James Cook wrote in his journal that his sailors
were making points and gaskets for the sails and masts.

Cutaway painting of the Endeavour which set sail 250 years ago. Picture:
Robert W. Nicholson
Cutaway painting of the Endeavour which set sail 250 years ago. Picture:
Robert W. NicholsonSource:Getty Images

The young gentleman botanist Joseph Banks in a Joshua Reynolds portrait.
Picture: National Portrait Gallery, London
The young gentleman botanist Joseph Banks in a Joshua Reynolds portrait.
Picture: National Portrait Gallery, LondonSource:Supplied

Australian stamp issued in 2001 featuring Swedish botanist Daniel
Solander who sailed on Endeavour. Picture: David Crosling
Australian stamp issued in 2001 featuring Swedish botanist Daniel
Solander who sailed on Endeavour. Picture: David CroslingSource:News
Corp Australia

The 40-year-old commander noted “fresh gales with heavy squalls of wind
and rain” were preventing Endeavour from leaving Plymouth on her voyage.

Aboard were 12 Royal Marines, 73 sailors, astronomer Charles Green,
naturalists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, botanical artist Sydney
Parkinson and landscape artist Alexander Buchan.

In the ship’s large hold were 6000 pieces of pork, 4000 of beef, nine
tonnes of bread, five tonnes of flour, a tonne of raisins, cheese, salt,
peas, oil, sugar and oatmeal.

Alcohol for daily rationing comprised 250 barrels of beer, 44 barrels of
brandy and 17 barrels of rum.

Cook included three tons of sauerkraut; on his previous voyages he had
learned protecting crew from the ravages of scurvy, the fatal vitamin C
deficiency, required vegetables.

Goats, sheep, pigs, chickens, ducks and geese were kept in pens at the
stern on the upper deck.

Cook would take on board fresh food and water at every port.

Cook's measurements of Venus’ transit.
Cook's measurements of Venus’ transit.Source:Supplied

Page from Cook’s Endeavour log. Picture: SLNSW
Page from Cook’s Endeavour log. Picture: SLNSWSource:Supplied

Map of Captain Cook’s voyage of discovery which began in August 1768.
Map of Captain Cook’s voyage of discovery which began in August
1768.Source:Supplied

When Endeavour reached Madeira, Portugal, just one month into her
journey, Cook purchased around 14,000 litres of local wine; officers
could keep extra supplies of alcohol.

The ship sailed south and west and rounded Cape Horn, the southernmost
tip of South America, before finally arriving at Matavai Bay, Tahiti on
April 13, 1769.

Cook set up a portable Venus transit observatory on shore, and on the
morning of June 4 began recording by hand the planet’s phases across the
sun.

With the Tahitian navigator Tupaia on board, Endeavour sailed south to
the 40th parallel, but found no evidence of the fabled Terra Australis.

Cook turned west and circled New Zealand, mapping the entire coastline,
becoming the first person to prove it was two islands and not connected
to a larger land mass. Tupaia proved vital in helping translate with the
Maori people they encountered there.

Endeavour turned west and on August 19, 1770 sighted land which Cook
named Point Hicks after his lieutenant, the point being a coastal
headland in East Gippsland, Victoria.

This point was the southern coast of what he would name New South Wales.

Coast of Tierra del Fuego near where Endeavour rounded Cape Horn.
Picture: Alexander Buchan
Coast of Tierra del Fuego near where Endeavour rounded Cape Horn.
Picture: Alexander BuchanSource:Supplied

Sketch of the portable observatory Cook set up on the shores in Tahiti
to record the transit of Venus.
Sketch of the portable observatory Cook set up on the shores in Tahiti
to record the transit of Venus.Source:Supplied

Map of Botany Bay from voyages and surveys of Captain James Cook.
Picture: British Library
Map of Botany Bay from voyages and surveys of Captain James Cook.
Picture: British LibrarySource:Supplied

Continuing north, Cook charted and named landmarks for the next week
until they reached a large and shallow inlet he named Botany Bay.

On April 29, Cook and his men made contact with the Gweagal clan of the
Eora Nation of Indigenous Australians who lived on the southern shores
of Kurnell Peninsula.

Cook’s secret instructions if he found a “continent or land of great
extent” were he “with the consent of the natives to take possession of
convenient situations in the country”.

As Endeavour neared the shore, Gweagal warriors stood on rocks
“threatening and menacing with their pikes and swords”.

When Cook tried to land in a small boat, the warriors warned them off
with spears and sticks until crewmen fired their muskets, wounding one
in the leg.

For eight days into early May 1770, Endeavour was anchored in the bay.

Cook and Joseph Banks unsuccessfully tried to make close contact, as the
warriors trod warily by the crew.

Banks and Solander went about collecting botanical specimens, animals
and spears and other items from the Gweagal.

Tahiti scene drawing from Cook’s first voyage showing long house,
coconut trees and canoes.
Tahiti scene drawing from Cook’s first voyage showing long house,
coconut trees and canoes.Source:Supplied

Volume 1 of Captain Cook’s record of his third voyage of discovery which
ended in his death in Hawaii in 1779.
Volume 1 of Captain Cook’s record of his third voyage of discovery which
ended in his death in Hawaii in 1779.Source:Supplied

Banksia serrata collected by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander in 1770.
Banksia serrata collected by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander in
1770.Source:News Limited

When Endeavour left, it sailed past Sydney Harbour which Cook named Port
Jackson but had not further explored.

Sailing north, Cook made his second landing at what he named Bustard
Bay, now the town 1770, 100km south of Gladstone.

On June 11, 1770, Endeavour ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef.

Repairs took seven weeks to be carried out at the spot which is now
Cooktown, at the mouth of the Endeavour River.

While there, Banks and Solander amassed a large haul of Australian flora.

Cook’s men had mostly peaceful encounters with the local Guugu Yimidhirr
people, learning words such as “gungurru” for the large grey marsupial
which hopped about.

The patched up Endeavour and sailed off by Cape York and through the
Torres Strait, which had been navigated by Spanish explorer Luis Váez de
Torres in 1606.

On August 22, Cook landed on Possession Island, part of the Torres
Strait Islands and claimed the entire coastline for the British Crown.

The ship put in at Batavia (now Jakarta), capital of the Dutch East
Indies where some in Cook’s company fell ill with malaria and dysentery,
including Tupaia, astronomer Green and artist Parkinson who all died
from their illnesses.

Endeavour left and rounded the Cape of Good Hope on Africa’s southern
tip and then home, anchoring on the Kent coast.

Captain Cook’s map of Australia’s east coast, the whole of which he
named New South Wales.
Captain Cook’s map of Australia’s east coast, the whole of which he
named New South Wales.Source:Supplied

Marine archaeologist James Hunter with the replica of the Endeavour.
Picture: James Croucher
Marine archaeologist James Hunter with the replica of the Endeavour.
Picture: James CroucherSource:News Corp Australia

James Cook has no direct descendants.
James Cook has no direct descendants.Source:Supplied

Australian-built replica of Endeavour in Port Lincoln, SA.
Australian-built replica of Endeavour in Port Lincoln, SA.Source:News
Limited

The journals of Cook and Banks were published and both gained fame and
acclaim, though Banks was more celebrated.

In 1762, Cook had married Elizabeth Batts who bore him six children over
13 years. Three died in infancy, two others, James and Nathaniel, died
while serving in the Royal Navy, and the youngest, Hugh, died while at
college in Cambridge. None had children of their own so there are now no
direct descendants of Captain Cook.

Cook made a second scientific voyage on behalf of the Royal Society, to
again search for the hypothetical massive southern continent.

HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure set off, with Cook narrowly missing
discovery of Antarctica, and landing at Easter Island, Norfolk Island,
New Caledonia and Vanuatu.

He returned home in 1775 and was given an honorary retirement from the
Royal Navy, but set out again the following year on Resolution with HMS
Discovery.

This trip’s aim was to find a northwest passage around America.

Cook became the first European to officially make contact with
inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands, which he named the Sandwich Islands.

E. Phillips Fox painting of Cook’s landing at Botany Bay. Picture:
National Gallery of Victoria
E. Phillips Fox painting of Cook’s landing at Botany Bay. Picture:
National Gallery of VictoriaSource:Supplied

Heritage-listed site at Kamay, Botany Bay where Cook landed in 1770.
Picture: Darren Leigh Roberts
Heritage-listed site at Kamay, Botany Bay where Cook landed in 1770.
Picture: Darren Leigh RobertsSource:News Corp Australia

The 1779 death of Captain Cook in Hawaii. Etch by Francesco Bartolozzi.
The 1779 death of Captain Cook in Hawaii. Etch by Francesco
Bartolozzi.Source:Supplied

He explored North America’s west coast, mapped part of Alaska and
according to reports fell ill and became irritated with his crew.

In 1779, he returned to Hawaii and sailed around it for two months
before stopping in at Kealakekua Bay on the big island of Hawaii.

The locals were celebrating the harvest festival of the Polynesian god
Lono and may have initially mistaken Cook as an embodiment of the god.

After a month’s stay, Resolution sailed but its foremast broke and
during repairs Cook’s crew and the Hawaiians began fighting.

A small boat was stolen and on February 14, 1779, Cook attempted to
kidnap the King of Hawaii and was struck on the head with a club and
then stabbed, dying with four other marines.

What happened to Captain Cook’s remains after his death has been subject
to much speculation, including a story that Hawaiian cannibals ate him.

What occurred was the Hawaiian tribesmen removed Cook’s body from the
beach, disemboweled it and baked it.

These actions, which historians do not dispute, were the traditional
mortuary rites performed by the indigenous Polynesians on Hawaii Island
for those of high status.

Bones were considered sacred because in them resided a person’s
spiritual essence or ‘mana’ which the native Hawaiians greatly valued.

Following death, supreme care was accorded to the bones which were
guarded, respected, venerated, and even deified.

So the Hawaiians cooked Cook’s body to enable the bones to be easily
removed, and then distributed the bones across their villages.

It was the cooking of his body which gave rise to the rumour of
cannibalism, but these islanders were not cannibals.

Unsurprisingly, Cook’s crew translated this act of respect for a revered
leader as a hideous desecration by the Hawaiians of their fallen enemy.

Amid simmering tensions between the two groups in the wake of Cook’s
death, his successor as commander, Charles Clerke, attempted to
negotiate for the return of the body for a traditional naval burial.

Crew members suggested attacking villages and taking back Cook’s body by
force.

After a few minor skirmishes, the Hawaiians returned enough of Cook’s
corpse to satisfy the enraged crew.

After performing a Christian burial at sea, the Resolution sailed.

With Cook’s physical remains lost to the sea, or preserved in Hawaiian
villages, the crew departed the Hawaiian islands for England to report
their captain’s death.

The expedition returned to England in October 1780.

One of Cook’s crew of Resolution described him posthumously as modest,
“rather bashful … sensible and intelligent” and who could hold “lively
conversation”.

Cook’s widow Elizabeth lived a further half century, dying aged 93 in 1835.

- ***@news.com.au

46Portrait of Captain Cook painted 1780-1782 by John Webber from two
earlier portraits. Note the glove on Cook’s right hand. It conceals
scars sustained in North America where a horn of powder he was holding
exploded. [Portrait: Australian National Gallery]
Captain James Cook: Who really was he?
~misfit~
2018-09-03 03:47:12 UTC
Permalink
Thanks for this - though there are at least three active NZ posters in rafs1
(albeit one of then currently resides in Russia).

Cheers,
--
Shaun.

"Humans will have advanced a long, long way when religious belief has a cozy
little classification in the DSM*."
David Melville (in r.a.s.f1)
(*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
Post by a425couple
from
https://www.news.com.au/travel/travel-advice/travellers-stories/captain-cook-set-sail-for-australia-250-years-ago-who-was-he-and-was-he-eaten-by-cannibals/news-story/00b3e0ecec2be9b9257ddd043e03c448
(Quite good pictures and graphics at the above site.
I enjoy reading of explorers, and Capt. Cook is top rate.
He sailed from England, and his first stop was in Tahiti
for a scientific purpose of measuring the Venus transit
of the sun. Then the serious work of finding the big
Southern continent was his assignment. Until his sailing,
it was thought that New Zealand's west coast, was the west
side of a very large continent. WRONG! He found they were
two different islands.)
Captain Cook set sail for Australia 250 years ago.
Who was he and was he eaten by cannibals?
RUMOURS swirl over what happened to Captain James Cook's body on his
voyage to the southern hemisphere 250 years ago.
Candace Sutton
news.com.auSEPTEMBER 2, 20185:32PM
Video
Image
Play
Unmute
0:00
/
0:27
Fullscreen
Click to unmute
IT WAS 250 years ago, August 26, 1768 that Captain James Cook set sail
on the HM Bark Endeavour from Plymouth to discover the fabled Great
Southern continent.
Cook's voyage was meant to be a trip to Tahiti in the southern ocean
to observe the transit of the planet Venus across the face of the Sun.
It was a rare event, happening every 243 years, that Venus could be
observed as a black disc passing across the Sun.
It was an 18th century obsession, with the outlying planets Uranus,
Neptune and Pluto as yet undiscovered, just how far was the Earth from
the Sun?
England's Royal Academy had sponsored the Endeavour to chart the
transit in the belief it would then be able to measure the size of the
solar
system.
But Cook also had a second mission commissioned by King George III,
contained in sealed orders he read only when his ship had sailed.
His voyage would change the course of history for the inhabitants of
the great land, dubbed in the English press at the time Terra
Incognita in the south.
What Cook did has been likened to space travel, although blasting off
for Mars even back then would at least have been heading for a seen object.
Cook and his ship of 94 occupants - including gentleman botanist
Joseph Banks - were sailing towards a remote island in the Pacific in
the hope of finding something Europe wasn't sure even existed.
Captain James Cook rose from humble beginning to become a famous
cartographer and explorer. Painting: Sir Nathaniel
Dance-Holland/National Maritime Museum, Greenwich
Captain James Cook rose from humble beginning to become a famous
cartographer and explorer. Painting: Sir Nathaniel
Dance-Holland/National Maritime Museum, GreenwichSource:Supplied
The replica Endeavour sailing west of Port Lincoln, SA in 1994.
The replica Endeavour sailing west of Port Lincoln, SA in
1994.Source:News Corp Australia
The mythical Great Southern continent drawn on a 1570 map by Abraham
Orte believed since antiquity to be at the bottom of the world.
The mythical Great Southern continent drawn on a 1570 map by Abraham
Orte believed since antiquity to be at the bottom of the
world.Source:Supplied
Whitby, North Yorkshire, where James Cook was apprenticed as a seaman.
Whitby, North Yorkshire, where James Cook was apprenticed as a
seaman.Source:Supplied
Tahiti had been charted by the British only a year earlier.
Cook's secret orders from the British Admiralty were to find the
southern continent about which Northern Hemisphere cartographers had
long hypothesised.
As early as the fifth century, although many thousands of years since
the first Aboriginal people settled Australia, the great continent
Australis, which means south, had begun appearing on maps.
The existence of a land mass to balance Europe, Africa and, later, the
Americas had been speculated upon as far back as around 350BC by Greek
philosopher Aristotle.
The Dutch East India Company had charted part of the coast of a land
they would call New Holland by the early 1600s, with Abel Tasman
giving the name Van Diemen's Land to the island which now bears his name.
By the 1760s, Britain was embroiled in the American War of
Independence and its custom of transporting criminals to those colonies
had been
suspended.
Economical and strategic advantages and a different sea trade route
lay in having a new colony in the south.
James Cook had demonstrated his considerable skills in cartography,
mapping the St Lawrence River (near French-held Quebec) for the
British Navy, and thereafter Newfoundland.
Cook's map of the island was so accurate it was still in use last
century.
The first printed portrait of James Cook in 1759.
The first printed portrait of James Cook in 1759.Source:Supplied
Cook's secret instructions to find 'Terra Incognita'.
Cook's secret instructions to find 'Terra Incognita'.Source:Supplied
A teenage James Cook first went to Staithes (above) to work as a shop
hand. A teenage James Cook first went to Staithes (above) to work as
a shop hand.Source:Supplied
A 1756 map by French cartographer Robert de Vaugondy, drawn 12 years
before Cook departed from England.
A 1756 map by French cartographer Robert de Vaugondy, drawn 12 years
before Cook departed from England.Source:Supplied
So who was James Cook and how did he come to be the one setting sail
for the island continent where around 750,000 indigenous people lived?
Born in the village of Marton in Yorkshire in 1728, Cook was one of
four surviving children of a Scottish farm labourer father, In 1736,
his father became foreman on the farm of lord of the manor Thomas Skottowe
in Great Ayton, Yorkshire. This allowed James to get a formal
education, and when he showed aptitude for maths and schoolwork, he
was apprenticed to a shopkeeper in the coastal fishing port of Staithes.
Lured by the seafaring life, he moved to the harbour town of Whitby to
serve a marine apprenticeship with John and Henry Walker.
The Quaker shipowners encouraged his study of maths and navigation,
and in 1747, aged 19, he took his first voyage aboard a collier (coal
ship).
Cook was unusually tall, more than 183cm, and older than the other
apprentices.
The colliers he served on plying the North Sea made a lasting
impression on him.
The vessels, known locally as Whitby cats, had a broad, flat bow, a
square stern, and a long boxlike body with a deep hold.
Their flat bottoms allowed the ships to sail in shallow waters and be
beached for cargo loading.
Cook's skill as a mariner earned him promotion up the ranks, but in
1755 he joined the Royal Navy as an ordinary seaman, technically a
demotion.
Portrait of Cook painted after his death showing glove on his right
hand concealing powder burn scars sustained in America in the 1760s.
Picture: Australian National Gallery
Portrait of Cook painted after his death showing glove on his right
hand concealing powder burn scars sustained in America in the 1760s.
Picture: Australian National GallerySource:Supplied
Inside the replica Endeavour where Cook would have sat, is Australian
James Croucher
Inside the replica Endeavour where Cook would have sat, is Australian
James CroucherSource:News Corp Australia
London Gazette of August 19, 1768, talks of the secrecy surrounding
Cook's voyage and if he will look for an unknown continent south of
the Equator.
London Gazette of August 19, 1768, talks of the secrecy surrounding
Cook's voyage and if he will look for an unknown continent south of
the Equator.Source:News Limited
Thereafter he learnt cartography, partly teaching himself.
Between 1759 and 1767, he surveyed the St Lawrence River, Newfoundland
and St Pierre and Miquelon islands off Canada's east coast.
Chosen to make the great voyage of discovery south, Cook chose a ship
that could take him, a complement of crew and passengers and a large
amount of supplies to the other side of the world.
It was a Whitby cat, formerly known as the Earl of Pembroke.
Now renamed the Endeavour, it was a large vessel, 29.7m long, built
from white oak, elm and pine.
It had the flat-bottomed design so as to be loaded at low tide and
floated off, which would eventually allow it to be repaired after it
ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef in 1770.
On August 22, 1768, James Cook wrote in his journal that his sailors
were making points and gaskets for the sails and masts.
Cutaway painting of the Endeavour which set sail 250 years ago.
Picture: Robert W. Nicholson
Cutaway painting of the Endeavour which set sail 250 years ago.
Picture: Robert W. NicholsonSource:Getty Images
The young gentleman botanist Joseph Banks in a Joshua Reynolds
portrait. Picture: National Portrait Gallery, London
The young gentleman botanist Joseph Banks in a Joshua Reynolds
portrait. Picture: National Portrait Gallery, LondonSource:Supplied
Australian stamp issued in 2001 featuring Swedish botanist Daniel
Solander who sailed on Endeavour. Picture: David Crosling
Australian stamp issued in 2001 featuring Swedish botanist Daniel
Solander who sailed on Endeavour. Picture: David CroslingSource:News
Corp Australia
The 40-year-old commander noted "fresh gales with heavy squalls of
wind and rain" were preventing Endeavour from leaving Plymouth on her
voyage.
Aboard were 12 Royal Marines, 73 sailors, astronomer Charles Green,
naturalists Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander, botanical artist Sydney
Parkinson and landscape artist Alexander Buchan.
In the ship's large hold were 6000 pieces of pork, 4000 of beef, nine
tonnes of bread, five tonnes of flour, a tonne of raisins, cheese,
salt, peas, oil, sugar and oatmeal.
Alcohol for daily rationing comprised 250 barrels of beer, 44 barrels
of brandy and 17 barrels of rum.
Cook included three tons of sauerkraut; on his previous voyages he had
learned protecting crew from the ravages of scurvy, the fatal vitamin
C deficiency, required vegetables.
Goats, sheep, pigs, chickens, ducks and geese were kept in pens at the
stern on the upper deck.
Cook would take on board fresh food and water at every port.
Cook's measurements of Venus' transit.
Cook's measurements of Venus' transit.Source:Supplied
Page from Cook's Endeavour log. Picture: SLNSW
Page from Cook's Endeavour log. Picture: SLNSWSource:Supplied
Map of Captain Cook's voyage of discovery which began in August 1768.
Map of Captain Cook's voyage of discovery which began in August
1768.Source:Supplied
When Endeavour reached Madeira, Portugal, just one month into her
journey, Cook purchased around 14,000 litres of local wine; officers
could keep extra supplies of alcohol.
The ship sailed south and west and rounded Cape Horn, the southernmost
tip of South America, before finally arriving at Matavai Bay, Tahiti
on April 13, 1769.
Cook set up a portable Venus transit observatory on shore, and on the
morning of June 4 began recording by hand the planet's phases across
the sun.
With the Tahitian navigator Tupaia on board, Endeavour sailed south to
the 40th parallel, but found no evidence of the fabled Terra
Australis.
Cook turned west and circled New Zealand, mapping the entire
coastline, becoming the first person to prove it was two islands and
not connected to a larger land mass. Tupaia proved vital in helping
translate with
the Maori people they encountered there.
Endeavour turned west and on August 19, 1770 sighted land which Cook
named Point Hicks after his lieutenant, the point being a coastal
headland in East Gippsland, Victoria.
This point was the southern coast of what he would name New South Wales.
Coast of Tierra del Fuego near where Endeavour rounded Cape Horn.
Picture: Alexander Buchan
Coast of Tierra del Fuego near where Endeavour rounded Cape Horn.
Picture: Alexander BuchanSource:Supplied
Sketch of the portable observatory Cook set up on the shores in Tahiti
to record the transit of Venus.
Sketch of the portable observatory Cook set up on the shores in Tahiti
to record the transit of Venus.Source:Supplied
Map of Botany Bay from voyages and surveys of Captain James Cook.
Picture: British Library
Map of Botany Bay from voyages and surveys of Captain James Cook.
Picture: British LibrarySource:Supplied
Continuing north, Cook charted and named landmarks for the next week
until they reached a large and shallow inlet he named Botany Bay.
On April 29, Cook and his men made contact with the Gweagal clan of
the Eora Nation of Indigenous Australians who lived on the southern
shores of Kurnell Peninsula.
Cook's secret instructions if he found a "continent or land of great
extent" were he "with the consent of the natives to take possession of
convenient situations in the country".
As Endeavour neared the shore, Gweagal warriors stood on rocks
"threatening and menacing with their pikes and swords".
When Cook tried to land in a small boat, the warriors warned them off
with spears and sticks until crewmen fired their muskets, wounding one
in the leg.
For eight days into early May 1770, Endeavour was anchored in the bay.
Cook and Joseph Banks unsuccessfully tried to make close contact, as
the warriors trod warily by the crew.
Banks and Solander went about collecting botanical specimens, animals
and spears and other items from the Gweagal.
Tahiti scene drawing from Cook's first voyage showing long house,
coconut trees and canoes.
Tahiti scene drawing from Cook's first voyage showing long house,
coconut trees and canoes.Source:Supplied
Volume 1 of Captain Cook's record of his third voyage of discovery
which ended in his death in Hawaii in 1779.
Volume 1 of Captain Cook's record of his third voyage of discovery
which ended in his death in Hawaii in 1779.Source:Supplied
Banksia serrata collected by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander in 1770.
Banksia serrata collected by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander in
1770.Source:News Limited
When Endeavour left, it sailed past Sydney Harbour which Cook named
Port Jackson but had not further explored.
Sailing north, Cook made his second landing at what he named Bustard
Bay, now the town 1770, 100km south of Gladstone.
On June 11, 1770, Endeavour ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef.
Repairs took seven weeks to be carried out at the spot which is now
Cooktown, at the mouth of the Endeavour River.
While there, Banks and Solander amassed a large haul of Australian flora.
Cook's men had mostly peaceful encounters with the local Guugu
Yimidhirr people, learning words such as "gungurru" for the large
grey marsupial which hopped about.
The patched up Endeavour and sailed off by Cape York and through the
Torres Strait, which had been navigated by Spanish explorer Luis Váez
de Torres in 1606.
On August 22, Cook landed on Possession Island, part of the Torres
Strait Islands and claimed the entire coastline for the British Crown.
The ship put in at Batavia (now Jakarta), capital of the Dutch East
Indies where some in Cook's company fell ill with malaria and
dysentery, including Tupaia, astronomer Green and artist Parkinson
who all died from their illnesses.
Endeavour left and rounded the Cape of Good Hope on Africa's southern
tip and then home, anchoring on the Kent coast.
Captain Cook's map of Australia's east coast, the whole of which he
named New South Wales.
Captain Cook's map of Australia's east coast, the whole of which he
named New South Wales.Source:Supplied
Marine archaeologist James Hunter with the replica of the Endeavour.
Picture: James Croucher
Marine archaeologist James Hunter with the replica of the Endeavour.
Picture: James CroucherSource:News Corp Australia
James Cook has no direct descendants.
James Cook has no direct descendants.Source:Supplied
Australian-built replica of Endeavour in Port Lincoln, SA.
Australian-built replica of Endeavour in Port Lincoln, SA.Source:News
Limited
The journals of Cook and Banks were published and both gained fame and
acclaim, though Banks was more celebrated.
In 1762, Cook had married Elizabeth Batts who bore him six children
over 13 years. Three died in infancy, two others, James and
Nathaniel, died while serving in the Royal Navy, and the youngest,
Hugh, died while at college in Cambridge. None had children of their
own so there are now no direct descendants of Captain Cook.
Cook made a second scientific voyage on behalf of the Royal Society,
to again search for the hypothetical massive southern continent.
HMS Resolution and HMS Adventure set off, with Cook narrowly missing
discovery of Antarctica, and landing at Easter Island, Norfolk Island,
New Caledonia and Vanuatu.
He returned home in 1775 and was given an honorary retirement from the
Royal Navy, but set out again the following year on Resolution with
HMS Discovery.
This trip's aim was to find a northwest passage around America.
Cook became the first European to officially make contact with
inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands, which he named the Sandwich Islands.
National Gallery of Victoria
National Gallery of VictoriaSource:Supplied
Heritage-listed site at Kamay, Botany Bay where Cook landed in 1770.
Picture: Darren Leigh Roberts
Heritage-listed site at Kamay, Botany Bay where Cook landed in 1770.
Picture: Darren Leigh RobertsSource:News Corp Australia
The 1779 death of Captain Cook in Hawaii. Etch by Francesco
Bartolozzi. The 1779 death of Captain Cook in Hawaii. Etch by Francesco
Bartolozzi.Source:Supplied
He explored North America's west coast, mapped part of Alaska and
according to reports fell ill and became irritated with his crew.
In 1779, he returned to Hawaii and sailed around it for two months
before stopping in at Kealakekua Bay on the big island of Hawaii.
The locals were celebrating the harvest festival of the Polynesian god
Lono and may have initially mistaken Cook as an embodiment of the god.
After a month's stay, Resolution sailed but its foremast broke and
during repairs Cook's crew and the Hawaiians began fighting.
A small boat was stolen and on February 14, 1779, Cook attempted to
kidnap the King of Hawaii and was struck on the head with a club and
then stabbed, dying with four other marines.
What happened to Captain Cook's remains after his death has been
subject to much speculation, including a story that Hawaiian cannibals ate
him.
What occurred was the Hawaiian tribesmen removed Cook's body from the
beach, disemboweled it and baked it.
These actions, which historians do not dispute, were the traditional
mortuary rites performed by the indigenous Polynesians on Hawaii
Island for those of high status.
Bones were considered sacred because in them resided a person's
spiritual essence or 'mana' which the native Hawaiians greatly valued.
Following death, supreme care was accorded to the bones which were
guarded, respected, venerated, and even deified.
So the Hawaiians cooked Cook's body to enable the bones to be easily
removed, and then distributed the bones across their villages.
It was the cooking of his body which gave rise to the rumour of
cannibalism, but these islanders were not cannibals.
Unsurprisingly, Cook's crew translated this act of respect for a
revered leader as a hideous desecration by the Hawaiians of their
fallen enemy.
Amid simmering tensions between the two groups in the wake of Cook's
death, his successor as commander, Charles Clerke, attempted to
negotiate for the return of the body for a traditional naval burial.
Crew members suggested attacking villages and taking back Cook's body
by force.
After a few minor skirmishes, the Hawaiians returned enough of Cook's
corpse to satisfy the enraged crew.
After performing a Christian burial at sea, the Resolution sailed.
With Cook's physical remains lost to the sea, or preserved in Hawaiian
villages, the crew departed the Hawaiian islands for England to report
their captain's death.
The expedition returned to England in October 1780.
One of Cook's crew of Resolution described him posthumously as modest,
"rather bashful . sensible and intelligent" and who could hold "lively
conversation".
Cook's widow Elizabeth lived a further half century, dying aged 93 in
1835.
46Portrait of Captain Cook painted 1780-1782 by John Webber from two
earlier portraits. Note the glove on Cook's right hand. It conceals
scars sustained in North America where a horn of powder he was holding
exploded. [Portrait: Australian National Gallery]
Captain James Cook: Who really was he?
Bruce Hoult
2018-09-03 04:46:13 UTC
Permalink
Post by ~misfit~
Thanks for this - though there are at least three active NZ posters in rafs1
(albeit one of then currently resides in Russia).
oh! Who is that?

(Paihia for me since April, probably somewhere in or around the SF Bay Area from Novemberish)
~misfit~
2018-09-03 06:20:13 UTC
Permalink
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Thanks for this - though there are at least three active NZ posters
in rafs1 (albeit one of then currently resides in Russia).
oh! Who is that?
(Paihia for me since April, probably somewhere in or around the SF
Bay Area from Novemberish)
You do get around! I thought that you were still in Moscow. I hope that
everything's going well for you. :)
--
Shaun.

"Humans will have advanced a long, long way when religious belief has a cozy
little classification in the DSM*."
David Melville (in r.a.s.f1)
(*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
Bruce Hoult
2018-09-03 06:44:53 UTC
Permalink
Post by ~misfit~
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Thanks for this - though there are at least three active NZ posters
in rafs1 (albeit one of then currently resides in Russia).
oh! Who is that?
(Paihia for me since April, probably somewhere in or around the SF
Bay Area from Novemberish)
You do get around! I thought that you were still in Moscow. I hope that
everything's going well for you. :)
Can't complain. I left Samsung Research Rus in order to join startup company "SiFive" who are building Open Source-based RISC-V cpus [1]. They've gone from 15ish people this time last year to around 80 now but apparently 6000 employee ARM is already worried :-) :-)

https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/8xbqlv/arm_launches_facts_campaign_against_riscv_ie_fud/

Working remotely from NZ at the moment. Paihia seemed as good a place to rent a place for the winter as any. Hopefully the H-1B visa will turn up soon.

[1] unlike ARM or x86, the RISC-V instruction set is open and free for use by anyone, without permission or fee. There are at least a dozen free implementations on github that you can download and put in an FPGA (or build a real chip if you have the $$$$). Being BSD licensed, commercial companies are free to implement it themselves (possibly starting from an Open Source version) and charge money for the resulting chip.

The main benefit of the Open Source nature of RISC-V is that you can (or will be able to) buy them from multiple competing companies and if any one of them goes out of business you can continue to use your investment. Unlike, say, people who were using the DEC Alpha processor. Or VAX. Or 68040, or anything else that would still be useful, but someone owns.
~misfit~
2018-09-04 01:30:42 UTC
Permalink
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Thanks for this - though there are at least three active NZ posters
in rafs1 (albeit one of then currently resides in Russia).
oh! Who is that?
(Paihia for me since April, probably somewhere in or around the SF
Bay Area from Novemberish)
You do get around! I thought that you were still in Moscow. I hope
that everything's going well for you. :)
Can't complain. I left Samsung Research Rus in order to join startup
company "SiFive" who are building Open Source-based RISC-V cpus [1].
They've gone from 15ish people this time last year to around 80 now
but apparently 6000 employee ARM is already worried :-) :-)
https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/8xbqlv/arm_launches_facts_campaign_against_riscv_ie_fud/
Working remotely from NZ at the moment. Paihia seemed as good a place
to rent a place for the winter as any. Hopefully the H-1B visa will
turn up soon.
[1] unlike ARM or x86, the RISC-V instruction set is open and free
for use by anyone, without permission or fee. There are at least a
dozen free implementations on github that you can download and put in
an FPGA (or build a real chip if you have the $$$$). Being BSD
licensed, commercial companies are free to implement it themselves
(possibly starting from an Open Source version) and charge money for
the resulting chip.
The main benefit of the Open Source nature of RISC-V is that you can
(or will be able to) buy them from multiple competing companies and
if any one of them goes out of business you can continue to use your
investment. Unlike, say, people who were using the DEC Alpha
processor. Or VAX. Or 68040, or anything else that would still be
useful, but someone owns.
If I were a jealous man I'd envy you your interesting life. As it is I'm
happy for you. :)
--
Shaun.

"Humans will have advanced a long, long way when religious belief has a cozy
little classification in the DSM*."
David Melville (in r.a.s.f1)
(*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
Bruce Hoult
2018-09-04 05:56:02 UTC
Permalink
Post by ~misfit~
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Thanks for this - though there are at least three active NZ posters
in rafs1 (albeit one of then currently resides in Russia).
oh! Who is that?
(Paihia for me since April, probably somewhere in or around the SF
Bay Area from Novemberish)
You do get around! I thought that you were still in Moscow. I hope
that everything's going well for you. :)
Can't complain. I left Samsung Research Rus in order to join startup
company "SiFive" who are building Open Source-based RISC-V cpus [1].
They've gone from 15ish people this time last year to around 80 now
but apparently 6000 employee ARM is already worried :-) :-)
https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/8xbqlv/arm_launches_facts_campaign_against_riscv_ie_fud/
Working remotely from NZ at the moment. Paihia seemed as good a place
to rent a place for the winter as any. Hopefully the H-1B visa will
turn up soon.
[1] unlike ARM or x86, the RISC-V instruction set is open and free
for use by anyone, without permission or fee. There are at least a
dozen free implementations on github that you can download and put in
an FPGA (or build a real chip if you have the $$$$). Being BSD
licensed, commercial companies are free to implement it themselves
(possibly starting from an Open Source version) and charge money for
the resulting chip.
The main benefit of the Open Source nature of RISC-V is that you can
(or will be able to) buy them from multiple competing companies and
if any one of them goes out of business you can continue to use your
investment. Unlike, say, people who were using the DEC Alpha
processor. Or VAX. Or 68040, or anything else that would still be
useful, but someone owns.
If I were a jealous man I'd envy you your interesting life. As it is I'm
happy for you. :)
Mate. Ten years ago this month, I got news that a scan showed I had a tumour in my kidney big enough that statistically my five year expected survival chance was 3%. Then something in the trauma of the surgery, or the anaesthetic or painkiller drugs used during or after surgery, fried my brain sufficiently that I was unable to do intellectual work for four years afterwards.

But I'm still here and kicking.
~misfit~
2018-09-04 08:49:17 UTC
Permalink
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Thanks for this - though there are at least three active NZ
posters in rafs1 (albeit one of then currently resides in
Russia).
oh! Who is that?
(Paihia for me since April, probably somewhere in or around the SF
Bay Area from Novemberish)
You do get around! I thought that you were still in Moscow. I hope
that everything's going well for you. :)
Can't complain. I left Samsung Research Rus in order to join startup
company "SiFive" who are building Open Source-based RISC-V cpus [1].
They've gone from 15ish people this time last year to around 80 now
but apparently 6000 employee ARM is already worried :-) :-)
https://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/8xbqlv/arm_launches_facts_campaign_against_riscv_ie_fud/
Working remotely from NZ at the moment. Paihia seemed as good a
place to rent a place for the winter as any. Hopefully the H-1B
visa will turn up soon.
[1] unlike ARM or x86, the RISC-V instruction set is open and free
for use by anyone, without permission or fee. There are at least a
dozen free implementations on github that you can download and put
in an FPGA (or build a real chip if you have the $$$$). Being BSD
licensed, commercial companies are free to implement it themselves
(possibly starting from an Open Source version) and charge money for
the resulting chip.
The main benefit of the Open Source nature of RISC-V is that you can
(or will be able to) buy them from multiple competing companies and
if any one of them goes out of business you can continue to use your
investment. Unlike, say, people who were using the DEC Alpha
processor. Or VAX. Or 68040, or anything else that would still be
useful, but someone owns.
If I were a jealous man I'd envy you your interesting life. As it is
I'm happy for you. :)
Mate. Ten years ago this month, I got news that a scan showed I had a
tumour in my kidney big enough that statistically my five year
expected survival chance was 3%. Then something in the trauma of the
surgery, or the anaesthetic or painkiller drugs used during or after
surgery, fried my brain sufficiently that I was unable to do
intellectual work for four years afterwards.
But I'm still here and kicking.
That's awesome! Sometimes a brutal reminder of our mortality can be
transformative and life-changing.

It looks like I'll be going under the knife before the end of the year to
have an allograft spinal fusion done at L5 / S1. (They use a 'scaffold' of
bovine gelatin and a bone-growth kick-start compound consisting of BMP-2
[Bone Morphogenic Protien 2]. The BMP-2 is 'human' but grown in genetically
engineered hamsters in China! Then the whole thing is held in place with
tianium so I'm going to be a cyborg chimera... thingy.

Hopefully I'll have a similar reaction to yours to... whatever. (The good
part, not that four year brain rest bit - unless that's what lead up to your
current form. ;) )

Cheers,
--
Shaun.

"Humans will have advanced a long, long way when religious belief has a cozy
little classification in the DSM*."
David Melville (in r.a.s.f1)
(*Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
a425couple
2018-09-03 12:41:55 UTC
Permalink
Post by Bruce Hoult
Post by ~misfit~
Thanks for this - though there are at least three active NZ posters in rafs1
(albeit one of then currently resides in Russia).
oh! Who is that?
(Paihia for me since April, probably somewhere in or around the SF Bay Area from Novemberish)
OK.
And, for a little less Off Topic, Scott Dixon who is looking
quite likely to win the Indycar Championship, again, was
a student at James Cook High School, in a suburb in south
Auckland.
Sir Tim
2018-09-04 13:52:33 UTC
Permalink
... probably somewhere in or around the SF Bay Area from Novemberish)
Lucky devil. SF is one of my favourite cities.

“San Francisco is 49 square miles surrounded by reality"
--
Sir Tim
D Munz
2018-09-04 17:07:18 UTC
Permalink
Post by Sir Tim
Lucky devil. SF is one of my favourite cities.
“San Francisco is 49 square miles surrounded by reality"
--
Sir Tim
Sounds more like Las Vegas.

There is nothing remotely "real" about housing prices anywhere in the Bay Area!

FWIW
DLM
Bruce Hoult
2018-09-04 23:27:08 UTC
Permalink
Post by D Munz
Post by Sir Tim
Lucky devil. SF is one of my favourite cities.
“San Francisco is 49 square miles surrounded by reality"
Sounds more like Las Vegas.
There is nothing remotely "real" about housing prices anywhere in the Bay Area!
Yes. Just awful. A salary that looks wonderful compared to NZ or Russia disappears real fast when two bedroom apartments cost $4000 a month (i.e. the first US$65k NZ$100k or so of your salary) instead of $1000 a month.
geoff
2018-09-04 21:04:46 UTC
Permalink
Post by Sir Tim
... probably somewhere in or around the SF Bay Area from Novemberish)
Lucky devil. SF is one of my favourite cities.
“San Francisco is 49 square miles surrounded by reality"
I liken Wellington to a 'Little SF', sans bridge of course. And Somes
Island was even used as a little Alcatraz at times.

geoff
Bruce Hoult
2018-09-04 23:19:06 UTC
Permalink
Post by Sir Tim
... probably somewhere in or around the SF Bay Area from Novemberish)
Lucky devil. SF is one of my favourite cities.
“San Francisco is 49 square miles surrounded by reality"
That's SF itself, which I'll probably seldom go to. The office (which I've been visiting regularly for a couple of weeks at a time all year) is at the intersection of 101 and 92 in San Mateo. Rents around there are just horrific and traffic terrible. One of the best solutions (from there) looks to be Half Moon Bay, which I've measured as taking 18 or 19 minutes between 6pm and 7pm, and it's considerably cheaper. I also have a lead on a place in Fremont that a friend has been renting for ten years but wants to stop doing so as he's retired and moved to the mountains (Volcano) with his guns and Hummer. I'm actually hoping to get permission to not go into the office every day and live further away. I'm thinking Stateline or Minden or Carson City. That's a drive taking almost exactly the same amount of time as from Turangi or National Park to downtown Auckland -- slightly more km but better roads -- which is ok for once a week.
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